The anthelmintic drug fenbendazole (FZ) has been repurposed as an anticancer agent. It is widely used in veterinary medicine to treat parasitic worms. It is poorly absorbed in the bloodstream and is converted to its sulfoxide derivative in the liver.
The sulfoxide is then excreted through feces and urine. This can help to minimize the risk of residues in human food.
It is a cytostatic drug
Fenbendazole (FZ) is a widely used medication that kills parasites and worms. It has also been shown to kill cancer cells by inhibiting the growth of microtubules and blocking glycolytic metabolism. It also prevents phosphorylation of Hexokinase II and increases apoptosis. This drug is currently being studied in a new protocol called the Joe Tippens Protocol and appears to be very promising.
According to a recent study by Dogra and Mukhopadhyay, fenbendazole induced apoptosis of 5-fluorouracil-resistant SNU-C5 cell lines by disrupting the formation of microtubules and preventing mitochondrial translocation of p53. In addition, it inhibits glucose uptake and expression of GLUT transporters and restricts insulin-stimulated glucose absorption.
This benzimidazole carbamate class of drugs is a broad-spectrum antihelmintic that has been in use for over six decades. It has minimal toxicity and is generally well tolerated in humans. It can be given for years without significant side effects. It is also known to kill tumors and slow their growth in animal models.
It is a tubulin blocker
When fenbendazole (FZ) binds with beta-tubulin, it inhibits microtubular (MT) polymerization and disrupts the dynamic MT structures in parasite cells. MTs play a key role in cell growth and division, motility, and the transport of organelles. FZ also perturbs glucose uptake, emptying glycogen reserves and adversely affecting energy management mechanisms in parasites.
Cells establish shape and structure through the cytoskeleton, a protein scaffold comprised of microtubules. These cellular structures are highly dynamic in nature and can be assembled and disassembled as needed. They are also the basis of the mitotic spindle that separates chromosomes during cell division.
Several broadly used anticancer drugs have been shown to induce their antineoplastic effects by altering the MT dynamics of the cell. These drugs include vinca alkaloids (vincristine and vinorelbine) and taxanes (paclitaxel and docetaxel). Inhibiting the MT polymerization process can block the progression of the cell through metaphase, leading to mitotic catastrophe.
It damages stem cells
Fenbendazole is a broad-spectrum anthelminthic drug used in veterinary medicine to treat parasitic worms. It was found to have a high anti-cancer activity by altering microtubules and inducing cell death. It also caused changes in pro-apoptotic proteins. In a tumour-bearing mouse model, fenbendazole significantly decreased tumour size and weight. Researchers attributed this effect to the drug’s ability to induce apoptosis in cancer cells.
Bendimidazole anthelmintics (BAs) are known to have antitumor activity through disruption of MT dynamics, induction of p53, and inhibition of glucose uptake by downregulation of key glycolytic enzymes and GLUT transporters. However, the antitumor mechanism is influenced by several factors such as cell growth status and culture conditions. In this study, we found that fenbendazole suppresses the growth of actively growing H4IIE cells and induced apoptosis by upregulating p21 and downregulating cyclins B and D at G1/S and G2/M phases in CRC cells. In addition, fenbendazole activates ferroptosis in these cells through decreased expression of GPX4. These results suggest that a combination of apoptosis and ferroptosis may be an effective strategy for treating CRC patients.
It kills birds
Fenben is a broad-spectrum antiparasitic in the benzimidazole carbamate family of medications. It is commonly used to treat parasitic worms and tapeworms in animals, including humans. It also has a long track record of safety in humans, and it is currently being promoted as a cancer treatment. It is marketed under the brand name Pancur and sold in several countries.
While fenbendazole is generally safe for humans, it can kill birds if they are exposed to high concentrations of the drug. This is because fenbendazole is toxic to many species of birds and can lead to toxicity in their eggs.
A stochastic model was used to determine the risk associated with consuming tissues from pheasants that have fenbendazole residues. This model takes into account a number of food safety adverse outcomes, such as repeat-dose toxicity, reproductive toxicity, teratogenicity, and carcinogenicity. The model also includes a number of different limits for each country, species, and tissue.fenben for humans